Classification of a Heart Attack
The European Society of Cardiology (ESC), American College of Cardiology (ACC), the American Heart Association (AHA) and the World Health Federation (WHF) have refined the definition of a heart attack/myocardial infarction by creating a clinical classification according to the assumed cause of the heart attack/myocardial infarction.
- Type 1: MI consequent to a pathologic process in the wall of the coronary artery (e.g. plaque erosion/rupture, fissuring, or dissection)
- Type 2: MI consequent to increased oxygen demand or decreased supply (e.g. coronary artery spasm, coronary artery embolus, anemia, arrhythmias, hypertension or hypotension)
- Type 3: Sudden unexpected cardiac death before blood samples for biomarkers could be drawn or before their appearance in the blood
- Type 4a: MI associated with percutaneous coronary intervention
- Type 4b: MI associated with stent thrombosis
- Type 5: MI associated with coronary artery bypass graft surgery